關於母乳餵養的10個事實

由於英文程度不是很好,加上翻譯網頁直翻的不是很順,這篇文章花了小東希媽咪3-4天才修改完成,如果那裡翻的不好再麻煩留言告知嘿~很歡迎英文程度較好的朋友幫忙翻一下哦:)

  

 2009年7月世衛組織

 母乳餵養是一種最有效的方法,在前6個月的新生寶寶純母乳餵養是可以確保兒童的健康和生存每年可避免超過一百萬的兒童死亡

嬰兒在6個月大前以純母乳餵養全球佔的比例不到40%。 充足的支持母乳餵養對母親和家人可以拯救許多年輕的生命。

世衛組織積極提倡母乳餵養對嬰幼兒是最好的營養來源。 以下10項事實證明哺餵母乳有絕對的好處,以及如何全力支持推廣至全世界提高母乳餵養。

 

世衛組織建議

世衛組織強烈建議前六個月以純母乳餵養。 六個月後,添加副食品同時母乳餵養至兩年或兩年以上 此外:

  • 母乳餵養應該開始出生後的一個小時內
  • 母乳餵養應該是“依需求”,因此是不分晝夜
  • 瓶或奶嘴應該避免

 

嬰幼兒健康效益

母乳是新生兒和嬰兒的理想食品。 它提供嬰兒所需的營養及健康發展。 它是安全的,含有抗體,有助於保護嬰幼兒常見的兒童疾病的 - 如腹瀉和肺炎,在全世界導致兒童死亡率最主要也是這兩個原因。 母乳可以直接獲得抗體,且負擔得起的,這有助於確保嬰兒獲得足夠的營養

 

對母親的好處

母乳餵養也有利於母親。 這種做法會引發月經延遲,這是一個自然的(雖然不是百分百)方法控制生育。 它可以減少乳腺癌和卵巢癌發生的風險,有助於婦女更快返回自己懷孕前體重,降低肥胖率

   

 

為兒童帶來長遠利益

對兒童不僅除了眼前的利益,母乳餵養有助於建立一個終身的健康身體 嬰幼時期被餵養母乳長大的成年人通常較不易高血壓及高膽固醇,超重肥胖及2型糖尿病發生率較低 有證據顯示,獲得養母乳的人,在智力測驗中有更好的表現

 

為什麼要捨棄嬰兒配方奶粉?

嬰兒配方奶粉不含母乳中有的抗體,並存在一些風險,例如水傳播的疾病:沖泡配方奶粉使用了不安全的水(許多家庭無法獲得乾淨的水)。還有為了延長配方奶粉使用次數,過度稀釋,導致營養不良,另一方面有可能造成因為給配方奶粉而導致原本建立好的母乳庫(指頻繁的餵食母乳維持產量平衡)失衡。 假如要回到全母乳餵養可能會因此而奶量減少。

 

艾滋病毒與母乳餵養

艾滋病毒陽性的母親,世界衛生組織建議前六個月純母乳喂養,除非替代餵養是:

  • 可接受(社會歡迎)
  • 可行的(有完善設施和幫助可以提供沖泡配方奶)
  • 負擔得起(有辦法購買半年份的配方奶)
  • 可持續(餵養可以持續 6個月)
  • 安全(有足夠衛生條件及可安全用水)。

 

規範母乳替代品

1981年 一個銷售母乳替代品國際規範通過了。 它要求:

  • 所有配方奶標籤和資訊,必需標明母乳餵養的好處和使用替代品的健康危害風險;
  • 不可推廣母乳替代品;
  • 不可提供免費的替代品的樣品給懷孕婦女,母親或他們的家屬;和
  • 不得派發免費或補貼替代品給衛生機構工作人員。   

 

絕對支持母親

要學會母乳餵養,許多婦女在開始時遇到困難。 乳頭疼痛,並擔心沒有足夠的奶維持寶寶需求,這些都是相當常見的問題。 支持母乳餵養衛生機構 - 讓通過母乳餵養培訓輔導員,提供給產婦必要的母乳諮詢 - 這項做法可以提高哺餵母乳率。 為了提供給媽媽及新生兒強大支持及護理改進,世界衛生組織及兒童基金會共同行動下,現在152個國家建立了超過 2萬所“愛嬰”機構。

 

工作與母乳餵養

世衛組織建議新媽媽產後,應該要有至少16週的休假,可以充份休息和哺餵母乳。 許多母親放棄前6個月純母乳餵養的建議,而回去工作,因為他們沒有足夠的時間,及適當的地方餵奶、擠奶儲存工作。 職業婦女母親在他們的工作場所內或附近,必需要有安全及清潔的私人空間,才有辦法持續實踐前6個月純母乳餵養。

 

下一步:逐步在新的食物

為了滿足6個月大的嬰兒需求,應該添加輔助食品,並且繼續進行母乳餵養。 對嬰兒食品,可專門準備或變動家庭飲食。 世界衛生組織指出:

  • 母乳餵養不應該添加輔食開始下降;
  • 應給予補充食品,用勺子或杯子,而不是在一個奶瓶;
  • 食物應清潔,安全並且是當地現有食材;及
  • 對幼兒學會吃固體食物需要充足的時間。

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出處:http://www.who.int/en/

原文如下:

10 facts on breastfeeding

July 2009

 
WHO/H. Anenden

Breastfeeding is one of the most effective ways to ensure child health and survival. A lack of exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life contributes to over a million avoidable child deaths each year.

Globally less than 40% of infants under six months of age are exclusively breastfed. Adequate breastfeeding support for mothers and families could save many young lives.

WHO actively promotes breastfeeding as the best source of nourishment for infants and young children. This fact file explores the many benefits of the practice, and how robust help for mothers can increase breastfeeding worldwide.

WHO recommends

WHO strongly recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life. At six months, other foods should complement breastfeeding for up to two years or more. In addition:

  • breastfeeding should begin within an hour of birth;
  • breastfeeding should be "on demand", as often as the child wants day and night; and
  • bottles or pacifiers should be avoided.

Health benefits for infants

Breast milk is the ideal food for newborns and infants. It gives infants all the nutrients they need for healthy development. It is safe and contains antibodies that help protect infants from common childhood illnesses - such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, the two primary causes of child mortality worldwide. Breast milk is readily available and affordable, which helps to ensure that infants get adequate sustenance.

Benefits for mothers

Breastfeeding also benefits mothers. The practice when done exclusively often induces a lack of menstruation, which is a natural (though not fail-safe) method of birth control. It reduces risks of breast and ovarian cancer later in life, helps women return to their pre-pregnancy weight faster, and lowers rates of obesity.

Long-term benefits for children

Beyond the immediate benefits for children, breastfeeding contributes to a lifetime of good health. Adults who were breastfed as babies often have lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol, as well as lower rates of overweight, obesity and type-2 diabetes. There is evidence that people who were breastfed perform better in intelligence tests.

Why not infant formula?

Infant formula does not contain the antibodies found in breast milk and is linked to some risks, such as water-borne diseases that arise from mixing powdered formula with unsafe water (many families lack access to clean water). Malnutrition can result from over-diluting formula to "stretch" supplies. Further, frequent feedings maintain the breast milk supply. If formula is used but becomes unavailable, a return to breastfeeding may not be an option due to diminished breast milk production.

HIV and breastfeeding

For HIV-positive mothers, WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months unless replacement feeding is:

  • acceptable (socially welcome)
  • feasible (facilities and help are available to prepare formula)
  • affordable (formula can be purchased for six months)
  • sustainable (feeding can be sustained for six months)
  • safe (formula is prepared with safe water and in hygienic conditions).

Regulating breast-milk substitutes

An international code to regulate the marketing of breast-milk substitutes was adopted in 1981. It calls for:

  • all formula labels and information to state the benefits of breastfeeding and the health risks of substitutes;
  • no promotion of breast-milk substitutes;
  • no free samples of substitutes to be given to pregnant women, mothers or their families; and
  • no distribution of free or subsidized substitutes to health workers or facilities.

Support for mothers is essential

Breastfeeding has to be learned and many women encounter difficulties at the beginning. Nipple pain, and fear that there is not enough milk to sustain the baby are common. Health facilities that support breastfeeding - by making trained breastfeeding counsellors available to new mothers - encourage higher rates of the practice. To provide this support and improve care for mothers and newborns, there are now more than 20 000 "baby-friendly" facilities in 152 countries thanks to a WHO-UNICEF initiative.

Work and breastfeeding

WHO recommends that a new mother should have at least 16 weeks of absence from work after delivery, to be able to rest and breastfeed her child. Many mothers who go back to work abandon exclusive breastfeeding before the recommended six months because they do not have sufficient time, or an adequate place to breastfeed or express and store their milk at work. Mothers need access to a safe, clean and private place in or near their workplaces to continue the practice.

The next step: phasing in new foods

To meet the growing needs of babies at six months of age, complementary foods should be introduced as they continue to breastfeed. Foods for the baby can be specially prepared or modified from family meals. WHO notes that:

  • breastfeeding should not be decreased when starting complementary feeding;
  • complementary foods should be given with a spoon or cup, not in a bottle;
  • foods should be clean, safe and locally available; and
  • ample time is needed for young children to learn to eat solid foods.

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以上幾個重點,哺餵母乳對母體及寶寶有很大的幫助,不僅益於健康外對身心發展有更棒的表現。但礙於必需外出工作及工作環境不許可下,常常有媽咪放棄前6個月黃金期,藉著世衛組織推廣至全世界,更應該重視哺餵母乳的重要性,可降低兒童猝死機率。

認為小東希媽咪這篇文章不錯的朋友,記得推一下啦~

歡迎帶走但麻煩請註明出處哦~

 

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世衛建議 母乳最好喝到兩歲
 
【聯合晚報╱記者林進修/台北報導】
2011.05.14 02:51 pm
 

台灣這幾年來孩子生得少,每個孩子都是寶,但餵哺母乳的比率卻偏低,新生兒剛出院時七、八成,但出生6個月餵母乳比率就降到兩成左右。台灣母乳協會籲請國人,如果真要疼愛這些小寶貝,就讓他們天天喝母奶,頭好壯壯地迎接未來的挑戰。

台灣母乳協會理事長林君怡強調,各種醫學研究都顯示,母奶是幼兒最佳的營養來源,新生兒除了可以從母奶中獲得足夠的養分,也可得到抗體保護,不受外來病菌的侵襲。哺餵母奶還可增進親子感情,好處多多。

然而,不少婆婆媽媽或家族長輩對母乳哺餵卻有錯誤認知,比如常當著新手媽媽的面說:「妳的奶不夠」、「妳的奶營養不足」。一旦發現小寶寶喝完母奶後仍哭鬧不停,就認為沒喝飽,非得要這些金孫、銀孫改喝配方奶粉不可。

林君怡說,新生兒容易哭鬧是出自於生物本能,出生不久通常都很淺眠,就算喝飽了還是會躁動不安、甚至哭鬧,其實不用大驚小怪

為了強化國人對哺餵母乳的正確認知,台灣母乳協會今天下午舉辦園遊會,期望透過親子互動遊戲,讓國人清楚知道哺餵母乳的好處。林君怡表示,美國小兒科醫學會建議應讓小寶寶一直喝到一歲以上,世界衛生組織(WHO)甚至建議應喝到兩歲。她建議國內產婦,至少讓讓孩子喝足6個月的母乳,情況允許可延長到一、兩歲


【2011/05/14 聯合晚報】@ http://udn.com/

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